Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2012, Page: 11-21
Sorption Studies on the Use of African Breadfruit (Treculia Africana) Seed Hull as Adsorbent for the Removal of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ from Aqueous Solutions.
Christopher Uchechukwu Sonde, Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
Stevens Azubuike Odoemelam, Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
Received: Dec. 22, 2012;       Published: Dec. 30, 2012
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajpc.20120101.12      View  4172      Downloads  214
The sorption of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ from aqueous solutions by unmodified (UBSH) and modified (MBSH) African breadfruit (Treculia africana) seed hull has been investigated. The amount of ions adsorbed by the hulls was dependent on the contact time range, 10 min – 120 min at optimum pH, 7.5 and temperature, 30 oC. Results revealed that the amount of metal ions adsorbed increased with time for both UBSH and MBSH, as well as a slight drop in the amount of Cd2+ adsorbed between contact time 60 min and 90 min for only UBSH. The rate of removal of the metal ions from their solutions was rapid, as appreciable amounts (96 % – 99 %) were adsorbed by the adsorbents at the least contact time (10 min) of the experiment. However, sorption capacity trend of the metal ions was Pb2+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ for both UBSH and MBSH. Modification by thiolation of the adsorbent showed enhancement mainly in the sorption of Cu2+ and Cd2+ and a reduction for Pb2+ due to low affinity of Pb2+ for –SH groups. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the sorption process was evaluated for Pseudo-first order and Pseudo-second order models, with Pseudo-second order providing a better fit to the experimental data with high R2 values ranging 0.9999 to 1. McKay & Poot intraparticle diffusion model also pro-vided a good fit to the experimental data with more R2 values close to 1 than Weber & Morris model, thus suggesting the sorption process to be intraparticle diffusion controlled. Generally, the results from this study, indicates that a good adsor-bent can be obtained from both unmodified and thioglycollic acid-modified breadfruit seed hull.
African Breadfruit Seed Hull; Aqueous Solution; Intraparticle Diffusion; Kinetics; Metal Ions; Sorption; Thiolation
To cite this article
Christopher Uchechukwu Sonde, Stevens Azubuike Odoemelam, Sorption Studies on the Use of African Breadfruit (Treculia Africana) Seed Hull as Adsorbent for the Removal of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ from Aqueous Solutions., American Journal of Physical Chemistry. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012, pp. 11-21. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpc.20120101.12
Marques P.A.S.S., Rosa M.F., Mendes F., Pereira M.C., Blanco J. and Malato S., Wastewater detoxification of organic and inorganic toxic compounds with solar collectors, Desalination, 108: 213 – 220 (1996).
Laws E.A., Aquatic Pollution: An introductory text, 2nd Ed. New York, Interscience, pp. 611 (1993).
Igwe J.C. and Abia A.A., Adsorption isotherm studies of Cd (II), Pb (II) and Zn (II) ions bioremediation from aqueous solution using unmodified and EDTA- modified maize cob, Ecl. Quim., Sao Paulo., 32 (1): 33 – 42 (2007).
Asamudo N.U., Dada A.S. and Ezeronye O.U., Afr. J. Bio-technol. 4 (13): 1548 – 1553 (2005).
Davis J.A., Volesky B. and Vierra, R.H.S.F., Sargassum weed as biosorbent for heavy metals, Water Res., 34 (17): 4270 – 4278 (2000).
World health Organization, Geneva, Guidelines for drinking Water Quality (1984).
Rorrer G.L., Heavy metal ions In: Removal from wastewater, In: Encyclopaedia of environmental analysis and remediation by R.A. Meyers (Ed.), Wiley, New York. 4: 2102 – 2125 (1998).
Kapoor A. and Viraraghavan T., Fungal biosorption - An alternative treatment option for heavy metal bearing waste-waters: A review, Bioresour. Technol., 53: 195 – 206 (1995).
Iqbal M., Saeed A. and Akhtar N., Petiolar felt-sheath of palm: A new biosorbent for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated water, Bioresour. Technol., 81: 151 – 153 (2002).
Ajmal M., Rao R.A.K., Anwar S., Ahmad J. and Ahmad R., Adsorption studies on rice husk: removal and recovery of Cd (II) from wastewater, Bioresour. Technol., 86: 147 – 149 (2003).
Basci N., Kocadagistan E. and Kocadagista B., Biosorption of copper (II) from aqueous solutions by wheat shell, Desa-lination, 164 (2): 135 – 140 (2004).
Alhaya N., Kanamadi R.D. and Ramachandra T.V., Biosorp-tion of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by the husk of Bengal gram (Cicer arientinum), Electron. J. Biotechnol., 8 (3): 258 – 264 (2005).
Aksu Z. and Isoglu I.A., Removal of cooper (II) ions from aqueous solution by biosorption onto agricultural waste sugar beet pulp, Process Biochem., 40: 3031 – 3044 (2005).
Abia A.A. and Asuquo E.D., Lead (II) and Nickel (II) ad-sorption kinetics from aqueous metal solutions using chem-ically modified and unmodified agricultural adsorbents, Afri. J. Biotechnol., 5 (16): 1475 – 1482 (2006).
Igwe J.C., Ekeghe M.N. and Abia A.A., Binding of Hg2+, Ni2+, and Pb2+ ions from aqueous solutions onto thiolated and carboxymethylated saw dust, Int. J. Chem., 16 (3): 121 – 128 (2006).
Abdel-Ghani N.J., Hefny M. and El-Chaghaby G.A.F., Re-moval of lead from aqueous solution using low cost abundant available adsorbents, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 4 (1): 67 – 73 (2007).
Abia A.A. and Didi O., Transfer zone behaviour of As (III), Co (II) and Mn (II) ions on sulphur –hydrl infused cellulose surface, Afri. J. Biotechnol., 6 (3): 285 – 289 (2007).
Dahiya S., Tripathi R.M. and Hedge A.G., Biosorption of heavy metals and radionuclide from aqueous solutions by pretreated Arca shell biomass, J. Hazard. Mater., 150 (2): 376 – 386 (2008).
Agiri G.O. and Akaranta O., Adsorption of metal ions by dye treated cassava mesocarp, Afri. J. Biotechnol., 4 (5): 526 – 530 (2009).
Igwe J.C., Abia A.A. and Okereke F.H., Kinetic studies on the sorption of Ag+ and Al3+ from aqueous solutions by co-conut fibre, Terrestrial and Aquatic Environ. Toxicol., 5 (1): 19 – 24 (2010).
Odoemelam S.A., Iroh C.U. and Igwe J.C., Copper (II), Cadmium (II) and Lead (II) Adsorption Kinetics from Aqueous Metal Solutions using Chemically Modified and Unmodified Cocoa Pod Husk (Theobroma cacao) Waste Biomass, Res. J. Applied Sci., 6 (1): 44 – 52 (2011).
Njoku V.O., Ayuk A.A., Ejike E.E., Oguzie E.E., Duru C.E. and Bello O.S., Cocoa Pod Husk as a low cost Biosorbent for the Removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from Aqueous Solu-tions, Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 5 (8): 101 – 110 (2011).
Adebayo M.A., Adediji J.F., Adebayo A.A. and Adebayo O.T., Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Parameters of the Biosorption of Ni2+ from Aqueous Solution by Streblus as-per, J. Applied Sci., 12 (1): 71 – 77 (2012).
Sousa Neto V.D., Cavarlho T.V., Honorato S.B., Gomes C.L., Barros F.C.F., Araujo-Silva M.A., Freire P.T.C. and Nascimento R.F., Coconut Bagasse treated by Thiou-rea/Ammonia Solution for Cadmium Removal: Kinetics and Adsorption Equilibrium, Bioresources, 7 (2): 1504 – 1524 (2012).
Sun G. and Shi W., Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for the removal of metal ions from waste water, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 37: 1324 – 1328 (1998).
Okieimen F.E. and Okundaye J.N., Removal of cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions with thiolated maize (Zea mays) cob meal, Biol. Wastes, 30: 225 – 230 (1989).
Han R., Zhang J., Zou W., Shi J. and Liu H., Equilibrium biosorption isotherm for lead ion on chaff. J. Hazard. Mater., B 125: 266 – 271 (2005).
Han R, Li H., Li Y., Zhang J., Xiao H. and Shi J., Biosoption of copper and lead ions by waste bear yeast, J. Hazard. Mater., B 137: 1569 – 1576 (2006).
Okieimen F.E., Maya A.O. and Oriakhi C.O., Binding of heavy metal ions with sulphur- containing chemically mod-ified cellulosic material, Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 32: 23 – 27 (1988).
Horsefall M. (Jnr.), Spiff A. I. and Abia A.A., Studies on the influence of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) modification of cassava (Manihot sculenta Cranz) waste biomass on the ad-sorption of Cu2+ and Cd2+ from aqueous solution, Bull. Ko-rean Chem. Soc., 25 (7): 969 – 976 (2004).
Eromosele I.C., Eromosele C.O., Orisakiya J.O. and Okufi S., Binding of chromium and copper ions from aqueous so-lutions by Shea butter (Butyrospermum parkii) seed husks, Bioresour. Technol., 58: 25 – 29 (1996).
Igwe J.C., Abia A.A. and Ibeh C.A., Adsorption kinetics and intraparticulate diffusivities of Hg (II), As (III) and Pb (II) ions on unmodified and thiolated coconut fibre, Int. J. Envi-ron. Sci. Tech., 5 (1): 83 – 92 (2008).
Weber W.J. and Morris J.C., Kinetics of adsorption on car-bon from solution, J. Sanit. Eng. Dir. Am. Soc. Cir. Eng., 89: 31 – 60 (1963).
McKay G. and Poots V.J., Kinetics and diffusion processes in colour removal from effluents using wood as an adsorbent, J. Chem. Technol. Bio. Technol., 30: 279 – 292 (1980).
Lagergren S., Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption geloster stoffe, Kungliga svenska vatens ka pakademiens, Handlingar, 24: 1 – 39 (1898).
Ho Y.S., Wase D.A.J. and Forster C.F., Study of the sorption of divalent metal ions onto peat, Adsorp. Sci. Technol., 18: 639 – 650 (2000).
Okieimen F.E. and Orhorhoro F.I., Binding cadmium and copper ions with chemically modified cellulosic matererials, Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 24: 319 – 325 (1986).
Aksu Z., Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of cadmium (II) biosorption by C. vulgaris in a batch system effect of tem-perature, Sep. Purify. Tech., 121: 285 – 294 (2001).
Srivastava S.K., Tyagi R. and Pant N., Adsorption of heavy metals on carbonaceous material developed from the waste slurry generated in local fertilizer plants, Water Res., 23: 1161 – 1165 (1989).
Abia A.A., Igwe J.C. and Okpareke O.C., Sorption kinetics and intraparticulate diffusivities of Co (II), Fe (II) and Cu (II) ions on EDTA-modified and unmodified maize cob, Int. J. Chem., 15 (3): 187 – 191 (2005).
Demirbas E., Kobya M., Senturk E. and Ozkan T., Adsorp-tion kinetics for the removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions on the activated carbons prepared from agricultural wastes, Water SA. 30 (4): 533 – 539 (2004).
Browse journals by subject