American Journal of Physical Chemistry

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Using Modified Activated Carbon to Remove Methylene Blue and Rhodamine B from Wastewater

Water contamination by dyes is a worldwide problem. There is, however, limited information on the adsorption of rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) by activated carbon modified by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). This study aimed to remove MB and RhB from industrial effluent by palm kernel shell modified activated carbon. The specific surface area (SL), and the zero charge pH (pHpzc) for unmodified activated carbon (AC) and modified activated carbon (AC-EDTA) were determined. The AC and AC-EDTA were also characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In the synthetic solutions and real effluents, the batch experiments were used to evaluate the MB and RhB adsorption capabilities by AC and AC-EDTA. The pHpzc values were 5.4 and 4.1 for AC, and AC-EDTA, respectively. The specific surface areas were found to be 756 m2/g and 538 m2/g for AC and AC-EDTA, respectively. The FTIR results indicated that C-N, N-H, and C=O functional groups were introduced onto the surface of activated carbon after in situ EDTA modification. The degree of graphitization (R) values were 0.63 and 0.78 for AC and AC-EDTA, respectively. The study indicated that the second-order and Langmuir models best fitted MB and RhB adsorption. In the synthetic solution, methylene blue maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) were 5.5 mg/g and 7.40 mg/g for AC, and AC-EDTA, respectively. Rhodamine B’s maximum adsorption capacities were 3.82 mg/g, and 7.11 mg/g for AC, and AC-EDTA, respectively. In the industrial effluent, the methylene blue removals percentages by AC and AC-EDTA were 59.83% and 79.98%, respectively. Those of rhodamine B were 12.9% and 58.71%, respectively for AC and AC-EDTA. Thus, the MB and RhB adsorption capacities were enhanced by AC-EDTA.

Palm Shell Kernel, Activated Carbon, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid, Methylene Blue, Rhodamine B, Real Effluent

APA Style

N’guessan Louis Berenger Kouassi, Abollé Abollé, Adjoumani Rodrigue Kouakou, Victor Gogbe, Albert Trokourey. (2023). Using Modified Activated Carbon to Remove Methylene Blue and Rhodamine B from Wastewater. American Journal of Physical Chemistry, 12(3), 30-40.

ACS Style

N’guessan Louis Berenger Kouassi; Abollé Abollé; Adjoumani Rodrigue Kouakou; Victor Gogbe; Albert Trokourey. Using Modified Activated Carbon to Remove Methylene Blue and Rhodamine B from Wastewater. Am. J. Phys. Chem. 2023, 12(3), 30-40. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpc.20231203.11

AMA Style

N’guessan Louis Berenger Kouassi, Abollé Abollé, Adjoumani Rodrigue Kouakou, Victor Gogbe, Albert Trokourey. Using Modified Activated Carbon to Remove Methylene Blue and Rhodamine B from Wastewater. Am J Phys Chem. 2023;12(3):30-40. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpc.20231203.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Cheng J, Zhan C, Wu J, Cui Z, Si J, Wang Q, Peng X, Turng LS (2020) Highly Efficient Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from an Aqueous Solution Using Cellulose Acetate Nanofibrous Membranes Modified by Polydopamine. ACS Omega 5: 5389−5400.
2. Mehra S, Singh M, Chadha P (2021) Adverse Impact of Textile Dyes on the Aquaticn Environment as well as on Human Beings. Toxicol Int 28 (2): 165-176,
3. Kouassi NLB, Doubi BIHG, Diabate D, Blonde LD, Albert T, (2023) Recycling of Alum Sludge for Rhodamine B Removal from Industrial Effluents, Chemistry Africa 6: 485-498,
4. Al-Ghouti AA, Sweleh AO (2019) Optimizing textile dye removal by activated carbon prepared from olive stones. Environ Technol Innov 16: 100488.
5. Arabpour A, Dan S, Hashemipour H (2021) Preparation and optimization of novel graphene oxide and adsorption isotherm study of methylene blue. Arab J Chem 14: 103003.
6. Gokce Y, Yaglikci S, Yagmur E, Banford A, Aktas Z (2021) Adsorption behaviour of high performance activated carbon from demineralised low rank coal (Rawdon) for methylene blue and phenol. J Environ Chem Eng 9 (2): 104819.
7. Nemr AE, Shoaib AGM, Sikaily AE, Mohamed AEDA, Hassan AF (2021) Evaluation of Cationic Methylene Blue Dye Removal by High Surface Area Mesoporous Activated Carbon Derived from Ulva lactuca. Environ Process 8: 311-332.
8. Yu M, Dong H, Zheng Y, Liu W (2021) Ternary metal oxide embedded carbon derived from metal organic frameworks for adsorption of methylene blue and acid red 73. Chemosphere 280: 130567.
9. Vedula SS, Yadav GD (2022) Wastewater treatment containing methylene blue dye as pollutant using adsorption by chitosan lignin membrane: Development of membrane, characterization and kinetics of adsorption. J Indian Chem Soc 99: 100263.
10. Yadav A, Dindorkar SS, Ramisetti SB, Sinha N (2022) Simultaneous adsorption of methylene blue and arsenic on graphene, boron nitride and boron carbon nitride nanosheets: Insights from molecular simulations. J Water Process Eng 46: 102653.
11. Maria LFADC, Abad MMLB, Divine Angela G. Sumalinog DAG, Abarca RRM, Peerasak Paoprasert P, Luna MDGD (2018) Adsorption of Methylene Blue dye and Cu(II) ions on EDTA-modified bentonite: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Sustain Environ Res 28: 197-205.
12. Kataria N, Garg VK (2019) Application of EDTA modified Fe3O4/sawdust carbon nanocomposites to ameliorate methylene blue and brilliant green dye laden water. Environ Res 172: 43–54.
13. Wang H, Lai X, Zhao W, Chen Y, Yang X, Meng X, Li Y (2019) Efficient removal of crystal violet dye using EDTA/ graphene oxide functionalized corncob: A novel low cost adsorbent. RSC Advances 9: 21996.
14. Jeskey J, Chen Y, Kim S, Xia Y (2023) EDTA-Assisted Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanospheres with Uniform Sizes for Photonic and Electrocatalytic Applications. Chem. Mater 35: 3024−3032.
15. Lv D, Liu Y, Zhou J, Yang K, Lou Z, Baig SA, Xu X (2018) Application of EDTA-functionalized bamboo activated carbon (BAC) for Pb(II) and Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions. Appl Surf Sci 428.648-658.
16. Li Y, Zhang J, Liu H (2018) In-situ modification of activated carbon with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt during phosphoric acid activation for enhancement of nickel removal. Powder Technol 325: 113–120.
17. Kouassi NLB, N’goran KPDA, Blonde LD, Diabate D, Trokourey A (2023) Simultaneous Removal of Copper and Lead from Industrial Effluents Using Corn Cob Activated Carbon, Chemistry Africa 6: 733-745
18. Kra DO, Allou, NB, Atheba P, Drogui P, Trokourey A (2019) Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon Based on Wood (Acacia auriculeaformis, Côte d’Ivoire). J Encapsulation Adsorpt Sci 9: 63-82.
19. Ezzeddine Z, Batonneau-Gener I, Pouilloux Y, Hamad H, Saad Z, Kazpard V (2015) Divalent heavy metals adsorption onto different types of EDTA-modified mesoporous materials: Effectiveness and complexation rate. Micropor Mesopor 212: 125-136.
20. Kumar A, Jena HM (2016) Preparation and characterization of high surface area activated carbon from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by chemical activation with H3PO4. Results in Physics 6: 651–658.
21. Andia JM, Larrea A, Salcedo J, Reyes J, Lopez L, Yokoyama L (2020) Synthesis and characterization of chemically activated carbon from Passiflora ligularis, Inga feuilleei and native plants of South America. J Environ Chem Eng 8 (4): 103892.
22. Keyvani F, Rahpeima S, Javanbakht V (2018) Synthesis of EDTA-modified magnetic activated carbon nanocomposite for removal of permanganate from aqueous solutions. Solid State Sci 83: 31-42.
23. Xu J, Chen L, Qu H, Jiao Y, Xie J, Xing G (2014) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from reedy grassleaves by chemical activation with H3PO4. Appl Surf Sci 320: 674–680.
24. Liu Y, Liu X, Dong W, Zhang L, Kong Q, Wang W (2017) Efficient Adsorption of Sulfamethazine onto Modified Activated Carbon: A Plausible Adsorption Mechanism. Sci Rep 7, 12437.
25. Ozdes D, Gundogdu A, Duran C, Senturk HB (2010) Evaluation of Adsorption Characteristics of Malachite Green onto Almond Shell (Prunus dulcis), Sep Sci Technol. 45: 2076-2085,
26. Brito MJP, Veloso CM, Santos LS, Bonomo RCF, Fontan RDCI (2018) Adsorption of the textile dye Dianix® royal blue CC onto carbons obtained from yellow mombin fruit stones and activated with KOH and H3PO4: kinetics, adsorption equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. Powder Technol 339: 334-343.
27. Lagergren S (1898) About the theory of so-called adsorption of soluble substances. Kungliga Svenska Vetensk Handl 24: 1–39.
28. Ho YS, McKay G (1999) Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes. Process Biochem 34: 451–465. (98)00112-5
29. Ramutshatsha-Makhwedzha D, Mavhungu A, Moropeng LM, Mbaya R (2022) Activated carbon derived from waste orange and lemon peels for the adsorption of methyl orange and methylene blue dyes from wastewater. Heliyon.
30. Ahmad MA, Yusop MFM, Zakaria R, Jamilah Karim J, Yahaya NKEM, Yusoff MAM, Hashim NHF, Abdullah NS (2021) Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by peanut shell based activated carbon. Mater Today 47: 1246-1251.
31. Han Q, Wang J, Goodman BA, Xie J, Liu Z (2020) High adsorption of methylene blue by activated carbon prepared from phosphoric acid treated eucalyptus residue. Powder Technol 366: 239–248.
32. Langmuir I (1906) The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass mica and platinum. J Am Chem Soc 40: 1361–1403.
33. Freundlich HMF (1906) Über die adsorption in lösungen. Z. PhysChem-Frankfurt 57A: 385-470.
34. Saruchi, Kumar V (2019) Adsorption kinetics and isotherms for the removal of rhodamine B dye and Pb+2 ions from aqueous solutions by a hybrid ion-exchanger. Arab J Chem 12: 316–329.
35. Kavitha D, Namasivayam C (2007) Experimental and kinetic studies on methylene blue adsorption by coir pith carbon. Bioresour Technol 98: 14–21.
36. Cengiz S, Cavas L (2008) Removal of methylene blue by invasive marine seaweed: Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea. Bioresour Technol 99: 2357–2363.
37. Pekkuz H, Uzun I, Güzel F (2008) Kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption of some dyestuffs from aqueous solution by poplar sawdust. Bioresour Technol 99: 2009–2017.
38. Sharma YC, Uma (2010) Optimization of Parameters for Adsorption of Methylene Blue on a Low-Cost Activated Carbon. J Chem Eng Data 55: 435–439.
39. Vigneshwaran S, Sirajudheen P, Karthikeyan P, Meenakshi S (2021) Fabrication of sulfur-doped biochar derived from tapioca peel waste with superior adsorption performance for the removal of Malachite green and Rhodamine B dyes. Surf Interfaces 23: 100920.
40. Hou Y, Huang G, Li J, Yang Q, Huang S, Cai J (2019) Hydrothermal conversion of bamboo shoot shell to biochar: Preliminary studies of adsorption equilibrium and kinetics for rhodamine B removal. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 143: 104694.
41. Oyekanmi AA, Ahmad A, Hossain K, Rafatullah M (2019) Adsorption of Rhodamine B dye from aqueous solution onto acid treated banana peel: Response surface methodology, kinetics and isotherm studies. PloS One 14: 1-20.
42. Thakur A, Kaur H (2017) Response surface optimization of Rhodamine B dye removal using paper industry waste as adsorbent. Int J Ind Chem 8: 175–186.
43. Mousavi SA, Kamarehie B, Almasi A, Darvishmotevalli M, Salari M, Moradnia M, Azimi F, Ghaderpoori M, Neyazi Z, Karami MA (2021) Removal of Rhodamine B from aqueous solution by stalk corn activated carbon: adsorption and kinetic study. Biomass Convers Biorefin.
44. Thomas P, Rumjit NP, Lai CW, Johan MRB (2021) EDTA functionalised cocoa pod carbon encapsulated SPIONs via green synthesis route to ameliorate textile dyes - Kinetics, isotherms, central composite design and artificial neural network. Sustain Chem Pharm 19: 100349.
45. Song M, Wei Y, Cai S, Yu L, Zhong Z, Jin B (2018) Study on adsorption properties and mechanism of Pb2+ with different carbon based adsorbents. Sci Total Environ 618: 1416-1422.
46. Xia Y, Yao Q, Zhang W, Zhang Y, Maojun Zhao M (2019) Comparative adsorption of methylene blue by magnetic baker’s yeast and EDTAD-modified magnetic baker’s yeast: Equilibrium and kinetic study. Arab J Chem 12: 2448–2456.
47. Benjelloun M, Miyah Y, Bouslamti R, Nahali L, Mejbar F, Lairini S (2022) The Fast-Efcient Adsorption Process of the Toxic Dye onto Shells Powders of Walnut and Peanut: Experiments, Equilibrium, Thermodynamic, and Regeneration Studies. Chemistry Africa 5: 375-393.
48. Wu J, Yang J, Huang G, Xu C, Lin B (2020) Hydrothermal carbonization synthesis of cassava slag biochar with excellent adsorption performance for Rhodamine B. J Clean Prod 251: 119717.
49. Kausar A, Shahzad R, Asim S, BiBi S, Iqbal J, Muhammad N, Sillanpaa M, Din IU (2021) Experimental and theoretical studies of Rhodamine B direct dye sorption onto clay-cellulose composite. J Mol Liq 328: 115165.
50. Xue S, Tu B, Li Z, Ma X, Xu Y, Li M, Fang C, Tao H (2021) Enhanced adsorption of Rhodamine B over Zoysia sinica Hance-based carbon activated by amminium chloride and sodium hydroxide treatments. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng 618: 126489.